Later Victorian to World War I 1870-1914
Sombre colours remained popular for both menís and womenís footwear at the beginning of this period.
The introduction of rubber led to several new fashion fads in the later part of the 19th century. In the late 1880ís, rubber becomes a novelty for summer wear. In the 1890ís, rubber heels become popular and common.
Steel springs were added in the waists of weak arches for womenís shoes as early as the 1880ís, making them more durable.
The greatest advancement in ready-to-wear shoes was the standardisation of sizes. By 1885, sizes were standard in Britain, with the United States following only two years later. Half sizes as well as several different shoe widths were also created in the 1880ís, ensuring that one could get a good fit without the expense of custom made footwear.