1815-1870

The fall of the totalitarian leadership of Napoleon brought a sigh of relief throughout Europe. When the Congress of Vienna met to redraw the old map of Europe, they in many ways attempted to re-establish the old monarchies that existed before the Revolution. This was not possible after the events of the past twenty-five years, and so the next three decades were to be based on liberal, radical and romantic attempts to overthrow these monarchical systems.

After the fall of Napoleon, Europe was continuously disturbed by revolutionary uprisings. Though the revolutions in many countries such as Greece, the Spanish colonies and France were militaristic in nature, in England the revolution was industrial. The economic changes caused by this revolution led to great suffering and much violence, as well as giving birth to the new, industrialised world and the rising of a larger middle class.